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 Tutorial 1 -- Sunday, August 28 
Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks
Mani Srivastava
University of California, Los Angeles, USA

This tutorial provides an in-depth treatment of background material, fundamental concepts, and research challenges in the emerging wireless sensor and actuator networks which are being used in myriad applications in sciences, security, workplace etc. The tutorial will comprehensively expose the attendees to various topics in this interdisciplinary area ranging from lower level issues of platforms, wireless networking and sensing to higher-level issues of data management and high integrity operation. It will emphasize the interaction and trade-offs across these levels, while preparing the attendees for research in this interdisciplinary field that draws upon knowledge from embedded systems, signal processing, computer networking, and software systems.

  • Introduction to Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (30 minute)
    • Motivation and application examples
    • Application requirements, performance metrics
    • Enabling technology: sensor node platforms
    • Sensor network architeectures
    • Research and design challenges
  • Self-configuration (1 hour)
    • Sensor network deployment and initial configuration
    • Timing synchronization: Requirements, approaches, specific techniques (RBS, TPNS, FTSP), long-term timing sync
    • Localization: Requirements, approaches, beacon-less vs. adhoc, distributed
    • Calibration: errors in sensors, in-situ calibration
  • Energy-management and energy-awareness (1 hour)
    • Source of power consumption
    • Sources of energy
    • Energy management: CPU, sensors, radio network
    • Environmental energy harvesting, energy neutral operation
  • Wireless communication & network protocols for sensor networks (45 minute)
    • Protocol requirements for sensor networks
    • Topology control
    • MAC: S-MAC, T-MAC, B-MAC
    • Routing: diffusion, Surge
    • Transport: reliable transport, congestion control
    • Disruption tolerant networking (DTN)
  • In-network processing, programming models, and middleware (45 minute)
    • Motivation and requirements for in-network processing
    • Programming models: node-level, database query model, virtual machine and mobile agents
    • Specific programming environments
      • Node-level: TinyOS (+ NesC, SNACK), SOS, EmStar
      • Database model: TinyDB, Cougar
      • Virtual machine and Mobile agents: Mate/Bombilla, Agilla, SenorWare
    • Sensor network management and debugging
  • Mobility and actuation (30 minute)
    • Importance of controlled mobility and actuation to improve sensing and communication performance
    • Distributed mobility and actuation control
    • Networked Info-Mechanical Systems
      • Adaptive sampling, uncertainty-driven control
    • Constrained actuation of sensors
    • Mechanical ferrying of bits: Data Mules
  • High-integrity: security, fault-tolerance (30 minute)
    • Sources of integrity compromise: malicious, non-malicious
    • Taxonomy of security attacks in sensor networks
    • Crypo for resource constrained
    • Secure routing and aggregation for sensor networks
    • Key management
    • Secure localization and timing synhronization
    • Reputaion-based Framework for high-integrity
  • Tools (30 minute)
    • Functional simulators
    • Node simulators
    • Network simulators
    • Emulation environments
    • Testbeds
  • Closing + Discussion (30 minute)
    • Technology and application trends
    • Open research problems
    • Commercial activity

Intended Audience:
The tutorial material would be aimed at researchers and industry practitioners with EE and CS backgrounds who wish to learn what is behind all the hype about wireless sensor networks, and learn about the design issues and technical challenges. The tutorial will also be useful to people who are already active in some aspect of sensor networks, and wish to gain a holistic understanding of the field across its multiple constituent sub-disciplines.

Speaker Bio:
Mani Srivastava received his Ph.D. in EECS from U.C. Berkeley in 1992. Currently he is a Professor on the Electrical Engineering Faculty at UCLA. He is also associated with the UCLA Center for Embedded Networked Sensing (CENS), a NSF Science & Technology Center. He did his graduate work at UC Berkeley, and worked at Bell Labs Research prior to joining the faculty at UCLA. His current interests are in embedded sensor and actuator networks, wireless and mobile systems, embedded system, power-aware computing and communications, and ubiquitous computing. More information about him and his research group is available at his Networked and Embedded Systems Lab's web site.

 Tutorial 2 -- Sunday afternoon - canceled 
802.11 WLAN MAC and smart antennas: issues and directions
Giuseppe Bianchi
University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy

Advanced antenna technologies (switched beam, adaptive antenna arrays, dynamically phased arrays, etc) may achieve a significantly higher coverage range than traditional, omnidirectional, antennas. Moreover, their adoption may lead to a dramatic increase in the capacity of a Wireless LAN, by allowing several stations to simultaneously communicate.

However, the 802.11 MAC is originally designed for omnidirectional operation, and the directional nature of smart antennas raises several problems which may significantly impair the 802.11 MAC operation. Of practical interest is the case of directive/smart antennas deployed only on Access Points (indeed, adoption of smart antennas on the customer's terminals may result impractical for both cost and technical reasons). When directional transmissions, from the Access Point to the clients, coexist with omnidirectional transmissions on the opposite direction, performance effective spatial reuse is hardly attained, due to the asynchronous nature of the 802.11 MAC operation.

Goal of this tutorial is to highlight the issues emerging when advanced antenna technologies are exploited in WLAN systems, and provide an overview of state of the art approaches devised to solve, or at least mitigate, these problems.

The tutorial will start with a brief overview of smart antenna technologies, and will then primarily focus on their effect in terms of layer 2 issues. Both scenarios of single cell (BSS) and multi-hop (mesh) networks will be considered.

  • Introduction
    • brief review of basic 802.11 MAC concepts
    • brief review of smart antenna technologies
  • Scenarios
    • Coverage extension
    • Spatial reuse - single cell scenario
    • Spatial reuse - multi-hop (mesh) network scenario
  • Issues
    • smart antenna models
    • emerging impairments (ack suicide, deafness, exposed terminals, etc)
    • considerations on spatial reuse effectiveness
  • Solutions
    • solutions based on handshake modifications (directional/circular RTS/CTS/NAV)
    • Power control approaches
    • proposed MAC modifications (synchronous operation, multi-channel approaches, etc)
    • cross-layer (MAC/PHY) approaches
  • Open issues and possible research directions

Intended Audience:
This tutorial is intended for researchers and practitioners who want to understand the issues emerging in IEEE 802.11 WLANs when advanced antenna technologies are exploited, and get familiar with state of the art approaches devised to mitigate these issues. Prerequisite knowledge includes basics of 802.11 WLANs.

Speaker Bio:
Giuseppe Bianchi is currently Associate Professor of Networking at the University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy, since 2003. Before his current appointment, he has been Assistant Professor at the Politecnico di Milano from 1993 to 1998, and Associate Professor at the University of Palermo from 1998 to 2003. He spent 1992 as Visiting Researcher at the Washington University of St. Louis, Missouri, USA, and 1997 as Visiting Professor at the Columbia University of New York. His research activity (documented in about 100 papers in peer-refereed international journals and conferences) spans several areas, among which: multiple access and mobility management in wireless local area networks; design and performance evaluation of broadband networking protocols; Quality of Service support in IP networks. His analytical modeling approach for the performance evaluation of 802.11 networks has been shown to be of help for several researchers in the field. He has been co-organizer of the first ACM workshop on Wireless Mobile Internet (ACM WMI 2001), of the first ACM workshop on Wireless Mobile Applications over WLAN Hot-spot (ACM WMASH 2003), and for the third IEEE international workshop on Multiservice IP networks (IEEE QoS-IP 2005). He has been general chair for the second ACM workshop on Wireless Mobile Applications over WLAN Hot-spot (ACM WMASH 2004).

 Tutorial 3 -- Monday, August 29 
Security in Sensor and Ad-hoc Networks: Perspective and Status
Virgil Gligor
University of Maryland at College Park, USA

The classes of security attacks and related countermeasures that are applicable to traditional network infrastructures often cannot be directly related either to sensor or ad-hoc networks. This tutorial will present background material and research challenges in the field of security in sensor and ad-hoc networks. After introducing the fundamentals of network security, we will focus on the emerging aspects of security in sensor and ad-hoc environments, presenting similarities and contrasting differences between the two.


  1. Review of network security concepts (1.5 hrs)
    This tutorial will begin with a review of basic network security concepts and techniques. In particular, we will review various security threats in traditional networks (e.g., the internet) and distributed systems and present countermeasures based on cryptographic protocols. Further, we will review basic cryptographic primitives, such as encryption modes, authentication modes and authenticated encryption modes, hash functions and trees, and random polynomials, and protocols, such as authentication and access control, and protocols. We will also review various adversary models and show how typical protocols help counter different attacks.
  2. Sensor Network Security (3 hrs)
    We present typical environments in which sensor networks are deployed, operational constraints of sensor network operation (e.g., limited power and energy, lack of physical security), and outline the new, specific security threats that characterize this environment (e.g., node capture, compromise of cryptographic keys, node replication). We focus on particular network security protocols and techniques that have to be redesigned and adapted to sensor networks, including distribution and revocation of cryptographic keys and light-weight cryptographic primitives. We compare and contrast the capabilities of the sensor-network adversary with those of the traditional network adversary, and review various protocols that can detect an adversary's presence within a network.
  3. Security in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (1.5 hrs)
    We define a typical environment of mobile ad-hoc networks and focus on the differences between the security concerns of these and those of the more traditional networks; e.g., lack of a separate security infrastructure and of reliable communications. We discuss new security threats that arise ad-hoc network operation, including threats to routing and access control, and countermeasures. We present several approaches to the establishment of trust relations among different nodes of an ad-hoc network and their use in access control. We present several areas of future research in the security of such networks.

Intended Audience:
This tutorial is intended for computer scientists and engineers who are interested in the novel security aspects of sensor and ad-hoc networks. It is also intended for graduate students and government personnel who are interested in learning about the state of security research in these networks. Only basic knowledge of network security is assumed.

Speaker Bio:
Virgil D. Gligor received his B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. degrees from the University of California at Berkeley. He has been at the University of Maryland since 1976, and is currently a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Over nearly thirty years, his research interests ranged from access control mechanisms, penetration analysis, and denial-of-service protection to cryptographic protocols and applied cryptography. He was a consultant to Burroughs (1977-1981) and IBM (1984-1999) Corporations, and is currently serving on Microsoft's Trusted Computing Academic Advisory Board. He served the profession as the chair of co-chair of several conferences and symposia including IEEE Security and Privacy Symposium, Internet Society's Network and Distributed Systems Security Symposium, IEEE Dependable Computing for Critical Applications, and IEEE-ACM Symposium on Reliability in Distributed Software and Databases. He received the outstanding paper award at the 1988 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. He was a member of several US Government INFOSEC Study Groups that set research agendas in information security, and served on a National Research Council panel on information security. He was an Editorial Board member of Information Systems (1984 - 1994), Journal of Computer Security (1991 - 2000), and is currently an Editorial Board member of the ACM Transactions on Information System Security, IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, and IEEE Transactions on Computers.

 Tutorial 4 -- Monday afternoon 
Wide-area wireless networks: Third generation and beyond
Ram Ramjee
Bell Labs - Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ, USA

Third Generation (3G) wide-area wireless networks based on the CDMA2000 and UMTS standards are now being increasingly deployed throughout the world. As of December 2004, there were over 146 million CDMA2000 subscribers and over 16 millions UMTS subscribers worldwide. Emerging 3G data standards, EV-DO and HSDPA, promise to deliver broadband mobile internet services with peak rates of 2.4 Mbps and 14.4 Mbps, respectively. Several new wireless standards and architectures such as WiMAX, wireless TV and WiFi mesh are also emerging. This tutorial will focus on the support for data services in 3G and emerging networks.

The first part of the tutorial will provide a detailed description of CDMA2000/UMTS architectures and protocols with emphasis on support for wireless data services. The tutorial will then cover emerging technologies such as WiMAX and wireless TV networks, and interesting ways in which these networks may co-exist and interact with 3G networks. Throughout the tutorial, open research challenges will also be highlighted.

  • Introduction
    • Wireless Network Basics and Evolution
    • 3G Cellular Architectures
  • Wide-area Wireless Data
    • CDMA2000
    • EV-DO (HDR)
    • Broadcast/Multicast support
  • Emerging Technologies
    • WiMAX
    • Wireless TV
    • WiFi Mesh
  • Discussion
    • Hybrid architectures

Intended Audience:
This tutorial is intended for students, faculty and researchers interested in the latest developments in wide-area wireless networks and related open research issues. The attendee is expected to have a basic understanding of computer networks.

Speaker Bio:
Ram Ramjee received his B.Tech in Computer Science and Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, and his M.S. and Ph.D. in Computer Science from University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He has been at Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies since 1996, where he is currently leading the next generation networks research department with a group of researchers examining architecture, protocol and performance issues in next generation wired and wireless networks. He is also an adjunct faculty at the Electrical Engineering Department of Columbia University where he teaches graduate courses in wireless networks. He served as the program committee co-chair of IEEE ICNP'2004 and will serve as the general co-chair of WICON'2006. Dr. Ramjee serves as an area editor of ACM Mobile Computing and Communications Review, an associate editor of IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing and a technical editor of IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine. He has published over 40 papers and holds 12 U.S. patents.